Providing practical information to help you protect your farm from biosecurity risks

Manual – Routine Biosecurity Procedures

 

1.     MOVEMENTS OF BIRDS AND OTHER LIVESTOCK/ ANIMALS

1.1         BIRD MOVEMENTS 

Objective:      To manage the introduction and movement of ducks and their products in a way that minimises the risk of introducing or spreading diseases. More

1.1.1      Inspect newly hatched ducklings and assess health status prior to unloading from delivery tubs.

1.1.2      Segregate, observe and treat as necessary newly introduced ducks.

1.1.3      Maintain a record of bird movements (all birds/eggs in, throughout the production area and all birds out) to facilitate tracing in case of an animal health or food safety concern.

1.1.4      Bird mortality and egg production (in breeder flocks) must be recorded on a daily basis to highlight unusual health problems.

1.1.5      Dead bird disposal methods must conform to environmental compliance requirements.  E.g., incineration with after burner and collection procedures as listed in Appendices 2 and 3.

1.2         LIVESTOCK AND OTHER ANIMAL MOVEMENTS

Objective:      To manage the introduction and movement of other livestock and animals (e.g. sheep, dogs, cats) in a way that minimises the risk of introducing or spreading infectious disease. More

1.2.1      If livestock graze the property, the production area must have a stock-proof fence.  Grazing near sheds, defined in this manual as part of the production area, is only permitted where the grazing area is separated by a stock-proof barrier from the area used by ducks, and where the grazing area is not used for access to other parts of the production area. 

1.2.2      Drainage from livestock pastures or holding areas must not enter duck sheds and production areas.

1.2.3      Dogs, cats and wild birds must not enter sheds at any time.

1.2.4      Only commercially produced and authorised ducks are to be kept in the production area. No other avian species, including aviary birds and pet birds, or pigs are to be kept on the property.


2.     PEOPLE, EQUIPMENT AND VEHICLE MOVEMENTS

2.1         PRODUCTION PERSONNEL

Objective:      To minimise the risk of introducing diseases or contaminants by production personnel.  More

2.1.1      Employees, or any person residing on the property, must not have contact with any other non company avian species or livestock, especially pigs.

2.1.2      Employees must wear clean clothes at the beginning of each work day.

2.1.3      Employees must ensure they do not become contaminated through contact with any avian species or livestock, especially pigs, on their way to work.

2.1.4      Boots worn in the sheds must not be worn, or taken, outside the production area, as they are the most likely method for spreading disease.

2.1.5      Protective clothing and footwear must be worn in the production area at all times.  Company service personnel could visit numerous production sites each day. 

2.1.6      Hands must also be sanitised before entering sheds and on leaving the production site.  

2.1.7      Company service personnel must work from the youngest to oldest flocks, healthy flocks, to those in either quarantine or with any disease risk. Access should always be made through ‘least risk’ areas, for example, the home of younger or healthy birds.  In an emergency, access can be made through a ‘high-risk’ area, after a shower and complete change of clothing.  The term ‘high-risk’ area includes production areas with minimum standards of biosecurity, multi-age flocks or endemic disease problems.  See Appendix 4 for the hierarchy of risk.

2.1.8      All production personnel must agree to comply with the entry conditions as stipulated in the Personnel Quarantine Declaration (Appendix 5).

 

2.2         CONTRACTORS, SUPPLIERS, OTHER SERVICE PERSONNEL AND VISITORS

Objective:      To minimise the risk of introducing diseases or contaminants by contractors, suppliers, service personnel and visitors. More

2.2.1      All contractors, suppliers, service personnel and visitors must agree to comply with the entry conditions, as stipulated in the Contractor’s Biosecurity Declaration If entering the production area/s (Appendix 6).

2.2.2      A visitors log should record all persons entering a production site (Appendix 7). 

2.2.3      Any authorised visitor, other producers or equipment suppliers, likely to have been exposed that day to poultry, other birds or pigs, must not enter the sheds unless they have had a thorough shower and change of clothing and boots.  If not, they must limit their visit to the property’s residence while wearing clean clothes. 

2.2.4      Repair and maintenance contractors who have had contact with poultry or other birds that day, must not enter sheds populated, or ready to be populated, with birds unless, (a) it is an emergency, and (b) they have showered thoroughly and changed clothing and boots, and covered their hair. 

2.2.5      Where a batch system is practiced, routine maintenance should be conducted, between batches, prior to final disinfection.

2.2.6      Drivers from other deliveries, such as gas and feed carriers, must not enter sheds.  Please note, this restriction does not apply to drivers delivering young birds.

2.2.7      A system for tracing the movement of all personnel entering a production site should be implemented by using the Visitors Log. (Appendix 7)

2.2.8      Drivers must wear protective clothing, such as dust coats, and sanitise their hands and boots before and after each entry to a production area.

2.2.9      Pick-up crew members must be company trained in biosecurity and bird handling techniques (as set out in relevant welfare standards), and should enter the farm only after meeting premises entry conditions.

 

2.3        ENTRY PROCEDURES FOR DUCK SHEDS

Objective:      To prevent the introduction of disease agents and contaminants into duck sheds through the movements of people. More

2.3.1      Entry to the duck sheds must only be made through entrances where a footbath exists, containing a suitable disinfectant used in accordance with the company or manufacturer’s instructions.  This is to be changed on a regular basis. There must be provision for scraping boot soles before dipping, to ensure the sanitiser is making complete contact with the soles.  Facilities for hand sanitation must also be placed at the entry of each shed.

2.3.2      Any person entering and leaving sheds must sanitise their hands and use footbaths before entering and leaving each shed, unless separate shed boots are being used.

2.3.3      Boot soles must be scraped before disinfecting in the footbaths to ensure the sanitiser is making complete contact with the soles.

2.3.4      A hand sanitiser must be available at approved entrances to production areas and must be used before entering.

2.4        EQUIPMENT

Objective:      To prevent the introduction of disease agents and contaminants into duck sheds through the movement of equipment. More

2.4.1      Footbaths must be inspected daily for excessive organic matter.  The disinfectant should be replaced regularly to ensure adequate concentration according to company or manufacturer’s recommendations.

2.4.2      Company service personnel can use their own tools and equipment (i.e.laptops, cameras or phones).  Before being taken into the production area, the equipment must be cleaned, ensuring it is free of dust and organic matter.

2.4.4      Duckling delivery tubs must be cleaned and disinfected after each use, preferably each day.

2.4.5      Crates used for pick-up must be checked and disinfected prior to leaving the processing plant.

2.5        VEHICLES

Objective:      To prevent the introduction of disease agents and contaminants into duck sheds through the movement of vehicles. More

2.5.1      Pick-up vehicles must be checked and disinfected prior to leaving the processing plant.

2.5.2      All visitors should park their vehicles outside the production area, unless it is essential the vehicle be taken on site, for example, some maintenance contractors. 

2.5.3      Trucks carting new or old litter, feed and gas must be cleaned and disinfected between production areas.

2.5.4      Duckling delivery trucks must be cleaned and disinfected after each use, preferably each day.

2.5.5      All vehicles taken into the production area/s need to be washed and disinfected prior to entry.


3.    FEED, WATER, SHAVINGS AND WASTE LITTER

3.1        WATER

Objective:      To ensure water used in duck sheds for drinking, cooling and cleaning, is suitable for livestock. More

3.1.1      The national water biosecurity manual poultry production is the Australian reference for safe water for duck production. All water supplies must be tested every six months to ensure that each facility meets the required standards (Appendix 8).  Records of these tests must also be retained.

3.1.2      The use of suitably treated water is critical to achieving good biosecurity. In general, chlorination alone is unsuitable for water with a high-level of organic matter, while ultraviolet treatment is of little use for turbid water.  It may be necessary to seek expert advice to ensure a safe water supply. Effective treatment of surface water to reduce contamination is complex, but essential.  Any water treatment process should be monitored regularly (Appendix 9).

3.1.3      Water from reticulated domestic supply or secure and clean underground bore water is ideally kept in a closed system from supply point to the ducks with no open exposure to the air.

3.1.4      For a chlorinated water supply, the treatment must achieve a level of 1.0 – 2.0 ppm free available chlorine (FAC) at the point of use.

3.1.5      When chlorinating water, there must be a minimum of two hours contact time prior to use.

3.1.6      If the water tests have failed the six monthly testing, monitoring must be conducted and recorded daily (Appendix 10) and a maintenance program needs to be in place.

3.1.7      The effectiveness of alternative systems, i.e., ultraviolet treatment, must be validated before use, and will require maintenance and monitoring program to ensure effectiveness.

3.1.8      Production area records demonstrating the effectiveness of water treatment must be kept. Microbiological validation of the treatment system’s effectiveness must be carried out annually, or as approved by the processor. 

3.1.9   Drinking water quality must be maintained at a standard suitable for use in duck production (Appendix 8).

3.1.10   Water that does not meet the standard must be treated through either: chlorination, ultra-violet, iodine or reverse osmosis, to ensure the standard is met.

3.1.11   Guidelines for chlorinating surface water are available in Appendix 9.

3.1.12   All surface water, such as dam and river water must be treated in accordance with the national water biosecurity manual before being used as duck drinking water. 

3.1.13   Ensure the quantity and quality of water and delivery system provided is suitable for the type and age of the ducks

3.2        FEED

Objective:      To manage the introduction and movement of duck feed stuffs in a way that minimises the risk of introducing or spreading infectious disease. More

3.2.1      Feeding systems must be managed to ensure feed in silos and feed delivery systems are protected from contamination by unwanted feral animals and wild birds and rodents.

3.2.2      Feed spills should be cleaned up immediately to prevent the attraction of feral birds and rodents to the production area.

3.2.3      Inspect duck feed on delivery for evidence of pests, damage and contaminants.

3.2.4      Store duck feed in a manner that prevents contamination by livestock, vermin, insects, wildlife, feral and domestic animals and other feed types

3.3        SHAVING STORAGE FACILITIES

Objective:      To keep unused shavings or bedding materials free from wild birds, pests & vermin as well as weather damage until it is used in the sheds. More

3.3.1      Shavings storage facilities must be in the production area.

3.3.2      Shavings storage facilities must be wild bird proof.

3.3.3      Shavings facilities must be weather proof.

3.3.4      Shavings facilities must be managed to minimise contamination from pests, vermin and other livestock or domestic animals.

3.4       USED LITTER

Objective:      To manage the movement and removal of litter in a way that minimises the risk of introducing or spreading infectious disease within the production area. More

3.4.1     Used litter and manure must not be stockpiled in the shed area, ie. the production zone.  Litter and manure must be stored in an appropriately designed storage area, with a sufficient buffering zone from the duck sheds and enclosures.  The storage area must be located in a position that will not compromise biosecurity.

3.4.2      Removal of all litter must be completed before the introduction of the next batch of breeder ducks.

3.4.3      A full or partial cleanout must be done for growers.

3.4.4      All brooder litter is to be completely removed before the introduction of new birds.

3.4.5      Accredited composted/heat sterilised or re–used litter can be used in the grow-out areas.

 

4.    PEST AND VERMIN CONTROL

4.1        PESTS

Objective:      To minimise the potential for introducing infectious agents and pathogens by pests (wildlife, feral, domestic and livestock animals) through their presence in the production area. More

4.1.1      It is the responsibility of the manager of each production site to implement and maintain a pest control programme for wildlife, ferals and domestic species.

4.1.2      All duck housing must be designed and maintained to prevent the entry of wild birds, feral animals and other pests.

4.1.3      Trees and shrubs should be set back from the immediate shed area to deter wildlife. This will also help to disperse air. Vegetation should be carefully selected to minimise wild bird attraction.  Vegetation buffers for environmental compliance should not be compromised.

4.1.4      Monitor and manage feral animal, weeds and wildlife populations to prevent an impact on the ducks.

4.2       VERMIN

Objective:      To minimise the potential for introducing infectious agents and pathogens by vermin, in particular rodents, through their presence in the production area. More

4.2.1      A baiting program for vermin must be implemented.  The program must include the following features:

a.      Bait stations must be checked weekly and replenished as needed.  It is recommended to rotate bait types every six months to avoid resistance. 

b.      A record should be kept of each inspection, noting all activity (see Appendix 11). 

c.       Monitor and manage vermin populations to prevent an impact on the ducks.

4.2.2      All duck housing must be designed and maintained to limit the entry of vermin. 

4.2.3      Bait stations must be included on the production site map, and defined by number, and placed a minimum of 20 metres apart.  The number of bait stations should be increased in areas where there are signs of increased rodent activity.

4.2.4      Bait stations must be designed to minimise the opportunity for other animals and birds to access the bait.

 

5.    MANAGEMENT

5.1        DOCUMENTATION AND TRAINING

Objective:      To ensure awareness by, and training of, all production area employees in all relevant biosecurity requirements. More

5.1.1      Each production facility must keep a copy of the Farm Biosecurity Manual readily accessible to staff.

5.1.2      Staff and service providers must be provided with training in all aspects of the manual, and such training is to be recorded.

5.1.3      A register must be maintained recording training and compliance of contractors and other service personnel.

5.2         END OF BATCH PROCEDURES

Objective:      To minimise the risk of introducing or spreading diseases or contaminants by delivery and pick-up operations. More

5.2.1      The farm and shed must be accredited as ‘biosecurity compliant’ after examination of the flock records by the referring company representative prior to pick-up.

5.2.2      The person in charge of pick-up will need to accept the flock following observations and consultation with the farmer.

5.2.3      The welfare and condition of livestock is the responsibility of the pick-up supervisor, or the appointed responsible driver, until vehicles reach the processing plant and are accepted by the site supervisor or person responsible.

5.2.4      After final pick-up, the shed doors must be kept closed when not in use, except during litter removal.  After washing and disinfecting, shed doors must be kept closed.  If drying is a problem, ventilate using fans or bird wire screens in shed doorways.  Wild birds must be kept out of sheds at all times.

5.2.5      All aspects of catching and transporting must be followed as outlined in training.  It must also be in accordance with animal welfare, and provisions of the standards and guidelines for the land transport of livestock.

5.2.6      A map drawn to scale of the property layout, showing the production area sheds, access roads and gates, must be created, maintained and kept in the site’s Farm Biosecurity Manual.

5.3        CHEMICALS AND USAGE

Objective:      To ensure employee awareness of, and training in, the safe usage and storages of all relevant chemicals used on site. More

5.3.1      All chemicals used in the production zone must be stored in a safe protective unit as required by state law.

5.3.2      Material Data Safety sheets for all chemicals held on site must be on hand at all times.

5.3.3      All staff must be competent in the usage and application of all farm disinfectants and herbicides.

5.3.4      Chemicals must be used as per the manufacturer’s instructions with with-holding periods and export slaughter intervals observed to ensure chemical contamination does not occur.

5.4        MEDICATIONS AND VACCINES

Objective: To ensure than any medications are dispensed under veterinary supervision. More

5.4.1   Medications and vaccines must never be administered without veterinary and/or grow-out manager supervision.

5.4.2   All medication withholding periods must be observed.  

5.4.3   Vaccines and medications must always be used as per the manufacturer recommendations unless directed by a veterinarian.

 

6.    FACILITY STANDARDS

Objective:      To design, maintain and operate duck production areas (including sheds) that will assist in providing a biosecure area. More

6.1         All duck houses, shavings sheds and water storages must remain wild bird, rodent and feral animal proof.

6.2         The production area requires a perimeter fence, or well defined boundary fence, marked with clear signage.  This is to establish a clearly defined biosecurity zone.

6.3         The main entrance to the production area must be closed off to vehicle traffic with a lockable gate, which should be kept locked at all times, when possible.

6.4         The entrance must display appropriate signage, such as ‘Biosecure Area – No Entry Unless Authorised’. In addition, signage must direct visitors to contact the farmer before proceeding, including telephone numbers and/or enquires to the house.

6.5         Facilities should be available for the cleaning and disinfecting of equipment and vehicles before entry to the production site.

6.6         All duck sheds must be lockable, and kept locked when unattended.

6.7         Dust creation should be kept to a minimum.

6.8         The production area must remain neat and tidy free from rubbish and clutter.

6.9         Grass on and around the production area must be kept short to avoid rodents and the survival of viruses and bacteria.  Vegetation should be poisoned in the immediate area of the outer shed wall with approved herbicide.

6.10       Drainage from livestock pastures or holding areas must not enter duck sheds and production areas.

6.11       Entry to the duck sheds must only be made through entrances where a footbath exists, containing a suitable disinfectant used in accordance with the company or manufacturer’s instructions.  This is to be changed on a regular basis. There must be provision for scraping boot soles before dipping, to ensure the sanitiser is making complete contact with the soles.  Facilities for hand sanitation must also be placed at the entry of each shed.

6.12       Footbaths must be inspected daily and excessive organic matter removed.  The disinfectant should be replaced regularly to ensure adequate concentration according to company or manufacturer’s recommendations.

6.13       All visitors should be directed to park their vehicles outside the production area, unless it is essential the vehicle be taken on site, for example, some maintenance contractors.

6.14       Trees and shrubs should be set back from the immediate shed area. This will help to disperse air. Vegetation should be carefully selected to minimise wild bird attraction.  Vegetation buffers for environmental compliance should not be compromised.